Language Design: Case Conventions

Objective arguments to solve case conventions and move on

published Oct 16 2020

TLDR: Identifiers in programming languages should use only snake_case, Title_snake_case, UPPER_SNAKE_CASE, ignore abbreviations, and be limited to ASCII alphanumerics with _.

This post will also touch on the structure of identifiers.

There was an earlier, more specialized post: Don’t Abbreviate In Camel-Case. This one is more general.

Lower case

Objective arguments in favor of snake_case over camelCase:

  • Works in case-insensitive systems such as SQL.
  • Can remap _ to type without Shift. (I did.)
  • Unambiguously convertible when numbers are involved.


one_123_two <-> one 123 two

one123two   <-> one123two
one123two   <-> one123 two
one123two   <-> one 123 two

one123Two   <-> one123 two
one123Two   <-> one 123 two

Title case

Objective arguments in favor of Title_snake_case over TitleCamelCase:

  • Can properly support abbreviations, for example XML_HTTP_request. No schizophrenia such as XMLHttpRequest.
  • Can remap _ to type without Shift. Titled identifiers require only one Shift press. (I did.)
  • Consistent with snake_case in a language that uses it for lowercase identifiers.
  • Unambiguously convertible when numbers are involved.


One_123_two <-> one 123 two

One123two   <-> one123two
One123two   <-> one123 two
One123two   <-> one 123 two

One123Two   <-> one123 two
One123Two   <-> one 123 two


Objective arguments in favor of avoiding abbreviations, for example Json_encoder over JSON_encoder, or JsonEncoder over JSONEncoder:

  • Fewer rules.
  • Less thinking.
  • Simpler code.
  • No schizophrenia such as XMLHttpRequest.

Example from work.

At some point I had contact with a code base involving generating Go code from Swagger. The generator had a variety of special cases for id, xml, and some other abbreviations. A field named xml_setting_id would become XMLSettingID. However, if you used an abbreviation unknown to the generator, for example XSD (XML Schema Definition), xsd_setting_id would become XsdSettingID.

The goal was noble: be consistent with the Go standard library, which stupidly uses abbreviations, for example MarshalXML. But unlike the standard library, you couldn’t just remember “abbreviations are uppercase”, your brain needed the database of the exact abbreviations special-cased in that generator. So don’t. Don’t use abbreviations in identifiers, and don’t special-case them in code generators or parsers.


Objective arguments in favor of restricting identifiers to ASCII alphanumerics with _:

  • Interoperable between all languages.
  • Works in all encodings.
  • Works in all Latin keyboard layouts.

Example from work.

At some point, we at Purelab were using Clojure and Datomic to build apps. Clojure symbols (Lisp equivalent of identifiers) use kebab-case and may contain operator characters such as -?. Booleans are expected to end with a question: hidden? instead of is_hidden.

Datomic has its own idiosyncrasy: column names are global and include the entity type. So, instead of this:

create table persons (is_email_verified bool not null default false);

…you use this:

{:db/ident     :person/email-verified?
 :db/valueType :db.type/boolean}

For simplicity, let’s suppose we use Postgres, and have a JS client. You have to either break the SQL and JS conventions by quoting the field:

create table persons ("email-verified?" bool not null default false);

…or break the Clojure convention by using the interoperable format:


Footnote on Lisp symbols

Lisps allow identifiers like email-verified? because they don’t distinguish identifiers and operators. They just have “symbols”. This has various problems.

  • People define custom operators, creating inscrutable code. Popular in Haskell. What the hell is >>=? With bind, you can at least start guessing the purpose, or pronounce it, or google it, what a feat!
  • Leads to hacks like embedding : / . in symbols to implement namespacing (Common Lisp, Clojure). This requires re-parsing the symbol, something the AST should have done for you. Clojure symbols are classes with “namespace” and “name” parts, indicating that they were combined prematurely. The AST should split alphanumerics and operators from the start.


When making a language, follow the conventions listed at the top. Let’s solve this forever and move on.

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